The word “fluent” is used in the standards to mean “reasonably fast and accurate” and the ability to use certain facts and procedures with enough facility that using them does not slow down or derail the problem solver as he or she works on more complex problems. Procedural fluency requires skill in carrying out procedures flexibly, accurately, efficiently and appropriately. Developing fluency in each grade can involve a mixture of just knowing some answers, knowing some answers from patterns, and knowing some answers from the use of strategies.
In the standards for kindergarten through grade six there are individual content standards that set expectations for fluency in computation. Such standards are culminations of progressions of learning, often spanning several grades, involving conceptual understanding (such as reasoning about quantities, the base-ten system, and properties of operations), thoughtful practice, and extra support where necessary.